Hernia happens when when part of an organ protrudes through the wall of the cavity that contains it. This can occur in any part of the body, but the commonest in the abdomen where part of the intestine coming through a weakness in the abdominal wall muscle such the belly button or the groin. This a also happen through a surgical scar after many years.
There are many factors that can predispose a hernia formation:
Most hernias are not immediately life threatening unless the bowel becomes strangulated at the muscle weakness. However, hernia will not just disappear without any surgery to patch up the weakness. Surgical repair is usually performed laparoscopically and the weakness patch up using a mesh which will reinforce the abdominal wall.
Gallstones are solid deposits in the gallbladder, which can form when there are excess cholesterol(cholesterol stones) or bilirubin(pigment stones) in the bile. Many gallstones are asymptomatic and only discovered when the patients undergo abdominal scan for other causes. Of those symptomatic patients, many will experience bloated sensation in the upper abdomen especially after an fatty meal which can be mistaken as gastric pain. If the stones cause blockage in the bile ducts, the patients will complain of severe gastric pain and become jaundice. Infection is also a common complication of gallstones which present with constant over the right upper part of the abdomen and fever.
Asymptomatic gallstones do not require any treatment. Surgery remains the best and permanent option for removal of gallstones. During the surgery, stones along with he gallbladder are removed through key hole surgery(laparoscopic cholecystectomy). In about 5% of the patients will be converted to open surgery to ensure a good outcome.
Many patients wonder how they can function without a gallbladder. The truth is one can live without a gallbladder and does not require a change in diet. Some might experience initial soft stool after surgery but most will eventually become normal again after recovery.
Many skin tumour can present as an innocuous lump or discolouration on any part of the body. The common areas will be the sun exposure area such as the face, neck and upper body. Warning signs to look out for include:
In most cases, wide excision of the lesion with adequate margin can be curable if discovered early. In melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy will be carry out to exclude regional spread.